Janies, D., Chen, S., & Zhang, D. (2023). Content and sentiment surveillance (CSI) : A critical component for modeling modern epidemics. Frontiers In Public Health. https://doi.org/doi:10.3389/fpubh.2023.1111661
Faculty, Comprehensive surveillance systems are the key to provide accurate data for effective modeling. Traditional symptom-based case surveillance has been joined with recent genomic, serologic, and environment surveillance to provide more integrated disease surveillance systems. A major gap in comprehensive disease surveillance is to accurately monitor potential population behavioral changes in real-time. Population-wide behaviors such as compliance with various interventions and vaccination acceptance significantly influence and drive the overall epidemic dynamics in the society. Original infoveillance utilizes online query data (e.g., Google and Wikipedia search of a specific content topic such as an epidemic) and later focuses on large volumes of online discourse data about the from social media platforms and further augments epidemic modeling. It mainly uses number of posts to approximate public awareness of the disease, and further compares with observed epidemic dynamics for better projection. The current COVID-19 pandemic shows that there is an urgency to further harness the rich, detailed content and sentiment information, which can provide more accurate and granular information on public awareness and perceptions toward multiple aspects of the disease, especially various interventions. In this perspective paper, we describe a novel conceptual analytical framework of content and sentiment infoveillance (CSI) and integration with epidemic modeling. This CSI framework includes data retrieval and pre-processing; information extraction via natural language processing to identify and quantify detailed time, location, content, and sentiment information; and integrating infoveillance with common epidemic modeling techniques of both mechanistic and data-driven methods. CSI complements and significantly enhances current epidemic models for more informed decision by integrating behavioral aspects from detailed, instantaneous infoveillance from massive social media data.