DESIGN, MODELING, FABRICATION & CHARACTERIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL Si SOLAR CELLS
Photovoltaic is a viable solution towards meeting the energy demand in an ecofriendly environment. To ensure the mass access in photovoltaic electricity, cost effective approach needs to be adapted. This thesis aims towards substrate independent fabrication process in order to achieve high efficiency cost effective industrial Silicon (Si) solar cells. Most cost-effective structures, such as, Al-BSF (Aluminum Back Surface Field), FSF (Front Surface Field) and bifacial cells are investigated in detail to exploit the efficiency potentials. First off, we introduced two-dimensional simulation model to design and modeling of most commonly used Si solar cells in today’s PV arena. Best modelled results of high efficiency Al-BSF, FSF and bifacial cells are 20.50%, 22% and 21.68% respectively. Special attentions are given on the metallization design on all the structures in order to reduce the Ag cost. Furthermore, detail design and modeling were performed on FSF and bifacial cells. The FSF cells has potentials to gain 0.42%abs efficiency by combining the emitter design and front surface passivation. The prospects of bifacial cells can be revealed with the optimization of gridline widths and gridline numbers. Since, bifacial cells have metallization on both sides, a double fold cost saving is possible via innovative metallization design. Following modeling an effort is undertaken to reach the modelled result in fabrication the process. We proposed substrate independent fabrication process aiming towards establishing simultaneous processing sequences for both monofacial and bifacial cells. Subsequently, for the contact formation cost effective screen-printed technology is utilized throughout this thesis. The best Al-BSF cell attained efficiency ~19.40%. Detail characterization was carried out to find a roadmap of achieving >20.50% efficiency Al-BSF cell. Since, n-type cell is free from Light Induced degradation (LID), recently there is a growing interest on FSF cell. Our best fabricated result of FSF cell achieved ~18.40% efficiency. Characterizations on such cells provide that, cell performance can be further improved by utilizing high lifetime base wafer. We showed a step by step improvement on the device parameters to achieve ~22% efficiency FSF cell.Finally, bifacial cells were fabricated with 13.32% front and 9.65% rear efficiency. The efficiency limitation is due to the quality of base wafer. Detail resistance breakdown was conducted on these cells to analyze parasitic resistance losses. It was found that base and gridline resistances dominated the FF loss. However, very low contact resistance of 20 mΩ-cm2 at front side and 2 mΩ-cm2 at the rear side was observed by utilizing same Ag paste for front and rear contact formation. This might provide a pathway towards the search of an optimized Ag paste to attain high efficiency screen-printed bifacial cell. Detail investigations needs to be carried out to unveil the property of this Ag paste.In future work, more focus will be given on the metallization design to incorporate further reduction in Ag cost. Al2O3 passivation layer will be incorporated as a means to attain ~23% screen-printed bifacial cell.