Emily Gravett and David Wiesner play with existing texts, narrative structures, visual elements and connectivity in their picturebooks using a variety of metafictive devices that also play with the story, characters, and readers. Both authors create synergy among all elements of their books, and place readers in a participatory role in the creation of the narrative. Gravett and Wiesner have different styles and how they employ these techniques to play with the texts also differs. Both authors create reading experiences that encourage play and analysis from readers as they explore and engage with the story. Playing with text such as these can "develop readers’ abilities to critically analyze, construct and deconstruct an array of texts and representational forms" (Anstey 444). Gravett and Wiesner produce complex books with the potential for multiple interpretations and meanings. They demonstrate that postmodern picturebooks can be fun, dynamic, and intelligent works of literature that provide engaging themes and challenge our assumptions about the relationship between the narrative and visual elements.