The Effects Of Resistance Training On Emotion Regulation And Hemodynamic Parameters In Response To A Stressful Task
The Effects Of Resistance Training On Emotion Regulation And Hemodynamic Parameters In Response To A Stressful TaskPhysical exercise is associated with improvements in mental health, potentially through enhanced emotion regulation (ER). However, the mechanisms that account for these relations remain unclear and no studies have examined the effect of resistance training on ER. PURPOSE: The purpose of the investigation is to determine the effects of resistance and flexibility training on ER and hemodynamic parameters in response to a stressful task. METHODS: The study consisted of a two-group pretest, posttest design with random assignment to group. Subjects (mean age = 19, male = 19%, female = 87%) were randomly assigned to the treatment group (resistance training, n = 12) or control group (stretching, n = 11) for a 10-week training intervention. Maximum strength and flexibility assessments were performed at baseline, at the midpoint of the training, and after the intervention. Subjects completed an emotionally challenging task, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT-C), prior to and after the training intervention. A noninvasive finger cuff blood pressure system (NIBP) was used to monitor hemodynamic responses during the PASAT- C. Pre and post-PASAT-C affect and ER were assessed via the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) and State-Based Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (S-DERS). Data were analyzed via repeated measures ANOVA for group (resistance, flexibility), day (initial, final lab visit), and time (pre-, post-PASAT). RESULTS: The strength training group increased significantly in 1 RM maximums across the lifts performed (F=6.88, p<0.01 baseline: 223±96kg, midpoint: 345±105kg, final: 376±119kg. The flexibility group trended towards increased flexibility across all measures (F=2.47, p=0.10 baseline: 162.4±25.2cm, midpoint: 177.3±22.5cm,iv final: 184.3±23.3cm). Analysis of positive affect scores revealed a significant main effect of time (F=13.43, p<0.01), but no significant effects of group or interactions. Analysis of negative affect revealed significant effects of group (F= 5.53, p= 0.02) and time (F= 6.37, p=0.02), but no significant interaction effects. Analysis of S-DERS data revealed significant effects of time for Nonacceptance (F= 10.86, p<0.01), Modulate (F= 8.50, p<0.01), Awareness (F= 5.85, p=0.02) and Clarity (F= 8.2, p<0.01). All post-PASAT-C DERS values were higher than at Pre. Similarly, significant main effects of time were found for both heart rate (F= 17.71, p<0.01) and systolic blood pressure (F= 50.08, p<0.01) which were greater post-PASAT-C. CONCLUSION: Although the PASAT-C produced significant increases in hemodynamic and difficulties with ER, neither resistance nor flexibility training affected responses across time points. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Practitioners should be aware that programming resistance and flexibility exercises can convey health or performance-related benefits but may not affect emotion regulation or physiological responses to stressors. Practitioners interested in programming training to influence emotion regulation or physiological responses to stressors are encouraged to use aerobic exercise, which has demonstrated efficacy in these areas.