Justice-oriented pedagogies support students’ sociopolitical, or critical, consciousness. Research reveals, however, that science educators, the majority of whom are white, struggle to enact these practices. The purpose of this Design-based Research study is to explore the implementation of a professional development innovation designed to support practicing science teachers’ development of critical consciousness and content specific critical science consciousness. Teachers that possess critical science consciousness are aware that inequities in society influence science, and cognizant of the role science plays in the creation and perpetuation of systemic oppression. This research illuminates two significant findings: 1) Certain science content can be leveraged to increase practicing teachers’ critical consciousness and critical science consciousness, and 2) Situating instructional materials in the history and current realities of the place individuals inhabit can support development of critical consciousness and critical science consciousness. This research also has implications for science curriculum and instruction: 1) Science practices are valuable tools to investigate the epigenetic impact of systemic inequities that create disparate health outcomes among marginalized groups, 2) Science teacher educators and professional development providers need to explicitly address the social construction of race and the role of science in the creation of notions of White Supremacy, and 3) Enacting culturally relevant practices has the potential to liberate teachers as well as students.