In 1898, the United States intervened in conflicts between Spain and its colonial holdings in the Pacific Ocean. The nation rationalized its actions as a humanitarian mission to free the native peoples of the Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam from Spanish imperial rule. At the war’s conclusion, the U.S. annexed the Pacific and Caribbean, crafting an imperial identity based in what it believed was humanitarian aid and "civilizing guidance." Though the annexations and subsequent occupations were contentious, Protestant missionary women were proponents of the actions particularly in the Philippines as it opened the door for evangelistic work. As occupation of the Philippines continued, however, the Protestant identities of the missionary women clashed with the American imperial identity which was becoming progressively more secular. In addition, while imperialism created an avenue into the Philippines for Protestant missionary women, the women also believed it did the same for fragments of American culture such as alcohol and gambling which they deemed morally "corrupting.".