Over the past 20 years, suicide rates within the US military have increased at unprecedented rates. According to Joiner’s (2005) Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS), perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness are direct risk factors for suicide, which may be exacerbated by self-stigma. Emerging research suggests that posttraumatic growth (PTG) may contribute to post-combat suicide resiliency; however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying its protective influence. Therefore, in an effort to identify intervention targets, the present study sought to test a model of specific mechanisms of suicide risk and resiliency in post-combat military personnel. Participants included 215 combat veterans of OEF/OIF. Statistical tests of simple mediation models utilizing bootstrapping techniques and analyses in AMOS were used to test the hypothesized model. Self-stigma was positively related to thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and PTG. Thwarted belongingness was related to perceived burdensomeness, and perceived burdensomeness was related to suicide risk. PTG was negatively related to thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and overall suicide risk. Results suggest that self-stigma may exacerbate suicide risk by increasing a sense of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. Results also suggest that PTG may directly and indirectly protect against suicide risk by offsetting the risk conveyed through thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. Thus, when conducting research with combat veterans at risk for suicide, it may be beneficial to consider interactive rather than isolated factors, with an emphasis on potential explanatory mechanisms. Further, PTG, belongingness, and burdensomeness may be important variables to consider in suicide prevention efforts.