Enhancing organizational commitment remains a critical issue for organizations worldwide. In extant literature, the relationship between high-performance work system (HPWS) and organizational commitment (OC) remains inconclusive. First, this paper explores the extent to which HPWS impacts OC using a meta-analysis of 47 HPWS-OC effects sizes from 63,382 observations across 26 countries. Grounded in social exchange theory and psychological contract theory, this paper develops a theoretical framework on the national culture contingency perspective of HPWS. Furthermore, it examines national culture as a moderator using two cultural dimensions: collectivism and uncertainty avoidance. Study findings revealed that HPWS relates strongly to organizational commitment. No support was found for the hypothesized moderation. Ad hoc analyses were conducted to further investigate two methodological moderators. Results showed that they were significant. Findings from this meta-analytic study have important theoretical implications for future research direction.