Using survey research methodology, the study investigates assessment and grading practices of secondary school teachers. A total of 248 teachers in the Piedmont and coastal regions of North Carolina completed a web-based survey examining academic and nonacademic factors that impacted the final grades of their students and assessment types used in the classroom. The results suggested that the grades teachers assigned are a conglomerate of various factors and mainly use achievement but also incorporate non-achievement factors. The most used factors to determine student grades were: percent correct, use of zeros, objective mastery, academic performance, effort, homework completion, the adjustment of borderline grades, homework quality, the degree that a student pays attention or participates, and improvement since the beginning of the year. The most prevalent assessment type was summative assessments with objective questions created by the teacher. While teachers agreed that the grades assigned by teachers across the state of North Carolina are inflated and contribute to the continually increasing graduation rate, most teachers also believe their grades represent achievement, as opposed to any other factors. There were differences found between core content teachers in the factors used to assign final grades, with math teachers less likely to use objective mastery and homework completion. Implications for school leaders and suggestions for future research are discussed.