Communication in the 21st century is no longer limited to a mastery of literal level comprehension, although it is an essential element of understanding. Now, more than ever, it is paramount that students are able to read and critically analyze texts in various genres. Coiro, Knobel, Lankshear and Leu (2008) outline the notion of New Literacies as central to civic, economic, and personal participation within a globalized community, thus becoming critical to educational research and education of all students. The underpinnings of constructivist theory serve to provide a framework for examining second grade teachers’ conceptualization of text complexity and complex text and its use in their classrooms. The study was guided by three research questions regarding teacher’s understandings and instructional practices. The data was collected from initial, in-depth interviews, classroom observation, as well as follow-up interviews with three second-grade teachers. Data was analyzed using within-case and cross-case analysis and yielded in-depth details about teachers’ understanding of text complexity and complex text and how complex text is used in their classrooms. Findings revealed that teachers’ understanding of text complexity and complex, as well as how complex text is used in each classroom differed across cases.